The identifi cation of potential AMD issues at the exploration and feasibility phases is critical, as these mine planning phases are often linked with community consultation, environmental impact assessment and regulatory approvals. Over the past 2 decades in Australia, knowledge of the extent and potential impact of AMD has increased, and this knowledge has been shared at ACMER workshops across Australia since 1992. There has also been a signifi cant effort in the characterisation and testing of materials for AMD, and in developing innovative management strategies. Thus there is a vast array of information available to site managers to manage, minimise or eliminate AMD, and thereby reduce the costs to their operations and the business. However, it is apparent that some operations encounter AMD problems possibly through lack of understanding of the fundamentals of AMD and its underlying causes, or inappropriate management, or inadequate skills of site and planning personnel.